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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

The Nigerian Journal of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology (NJAAT) with ISSN (Print): 2811-1885 and ISSN (Online):2811-1893 is a publication of the Faculty of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. The Journal is published twice a year (June and December). The primary, concern of the Journal is the publication of original research works in all fields of agriculture, including agricultural economics, agribusiness management, agricultural extension and rural development, animal science, crops science, plants science, soil science, fisheries and aquaculture, veterinary science, etc. In addition, a review work in key areas in agricultural science may be considered for publication.


Manuscript Submission

The Journal only accept soft copy submission of manuscripts for all types of articles, which are to be written in English. Please prepare your manuscript following the instructions for authors given below before submitting it online. If submission is completed successfully, an article identity (ID) will be allocated to you and an e-mail acknowledgement will follow. All subsequent correspondence should be sent to the journal

Title: The title must be grammatically correct, not too long or not more than 20 words in length.

Authors’ Names and Institutional Affiliations: This should include the full authors’ names (with no titles or qualifications), institutional addresses (Department, Institute, City, Postal code, Country), and e-mail addresses for all authors. Authors and affiliations must be linked using superscript numerals on right corner of surname. The corresponding author’s address should also be indicated to which the galley proofs and reprints should be sent.


Manuscript Preparation

Manuscripts must be in Microsoft Word format only, be written in English, typed double-spaced, with font size 12 of Times New Roman 3cm margins of A4 paper. Manuscripts should be paginated using Arabic numerals to be centrally located at the bottom centre of each page. All major headings should be in “upper case”. For sub-titles, the first letter of each key words should be capitalized (title case) while in sub-sub-title, use sentence case, i.e., only the first letter of the first word should be capitalized (title case). Complete manuscript should not be less than 5 pages and not more than 10 pages. Italicize all foreign words. Manuscript in general should be organized as follows:

First Page:

The first page should carry the title of the paper in capital letters at the top of the page which should be concise and not more than 20 words. This is followed by the name(s) of author(s) and list of their addresses/Institutional affiliation. Authors are advised to spell out one of their given names rather than precede surnames with initials only as this facilitates identification. The mailing address, telephone number and e-mail address of the corresponding author should be provided.


There must be an abstract not exceeding 250 words. It should be structured to give a brief introduction to the study, methodology, main findings of the study, conclusions drawn from the study and their significance.


Provide immediately under the abstract 3-5 carefully chosen keywords arranged alphabetically in title case.

Main body of the work:

The main body of the work should be presented under the following headings in capital letters:


Authors should provide a brief literature survey (should describe why the work was undertaken, avoid citing literature older than ten (10) years unless absolutely necessary) and background to the study expressing the statement of the problem, objectives or hypotheses and the significance of the research against which the study is to be visualized and appraised. Subheadings not required here.

Materials and Methods:

Materials and methods or research methods include description of the study area(s), methods of data collection, sampling techniques and statistical analysis (in sufficient detail to allow these to be replicated by other researchers). A detail description of the sample size selection plan or procedures is necessary (use Table where necessary). Subheading may be used for each item.

Results and Discussion:

In typing the manuscripts, titles and subtitles should not run within the text. They should be typed on a separate line, without indentation. Use lower-case letter-type for sub-titles.

Results should be reported based on the findings of the study without unnecessarily repeating information already stated on the tables, figures and plates. Tables, Figures and Plates should be presented immediately following the page where it was first mentioned. In a professional manner, results and discussions may be combined for convenience and should be considered in relation to other published information or any published initial hypothesis explaining the significance and implications of the results. We advise that this section be written in past tense.

Conclusion and Recommendations:

Conclusion and recommendations contain the inferences drawn from the factual evidences of the research and also pointing out remaining gaps in knowledge.


Any (short) additional information concerning research grant, etc., may be included under the acknowledgement (If any, authors should acknowledge the source of funding or any assistance received in the research).


In the text, refer to the author’s name (without initials) and year of publication. Adegbola (1990) has shown that...” or “This is in agreement with results obtained later (Abubakar, 1995). If reference is made in the text to a publication written by more than two authors, the name of the first author should be used followed by “et al.” (Italicize). This indication, however, should never be used in the list of references where names of all co-authors should be mentioned. Reference cited together in the text should be arranged chronologically. The list of references should be arranged alphabetically on authors’ names, and chronologically per author, e.g. Publications of the single author, arranged according to publications dates, publications of the same author with one co-author, publications of the author with more than one co-author in that order if an author’s name in the list of references is mentioned with co-authors. Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be listed as 1999a, 1999b, etc. References in the text should be cited according to APA format, with author’s surname(s) e.g., Kushwaha (2017) or (Sani, 2017), Ochi and Murtala (2017) or (Ochi and Murtala, 2017), Danwanka et al. (2017) or (Danwanka et al., 2017). The reference layout should be as follows:

Journal articles:

Authors, year “Title of the article”, Journal name (in italics), Volume (Issue), Pages. Example: Kushwaha, S., Ochi, J. E., Abubakar, M. M., and Ayoola, G. B. (1999).  Effect of chemical fertilizer and animal wastes application on environmental life support using the “Delphi” technique. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 14(1): 91-98.


Standard format: Authors, year, Title (in italics), Publisher, City of Publication, Year of Publication, page numbers (if appropriate). Example: Sani, M. H. (2017). Agribusiness Management for Development: No Strategy = No Effectiveness. First edition, Stirling-Horden Publishers Ltd., Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, 2017, 346Pp. McDonald, P., Edwards, R. A. and Morgan, C. A. (1998). Animal Nutrition. Fifth edition, Longman, Malaysia, 607Pp.

Conference Proceedings:

Authors, year “Title of the article”, in Title of conference (in italics), Publisher, and pages. Example: Kalla, D. J. U., Mbap, S. T. and Gajau, J. M. (1998). Productivity of zebu cattle under traditional ago-pastoral management in Pankshin highlands, Nigeria. In: O. O. Oduguwa, A. O. Fanimo and O. A. Osinowo (eds.). Animal Agriculture in West Africa: Sustainability Question. Proceedings of the Silver Anniversary Conference of Nigerian Society of Animal Production/Inaugural Conference of the West African Society for Animal Production, pp.524-525, Abeokuta, Nigeria, 21-26 March.

Sani, R. M., Murtala, N. and Akor, O. G. (2002). Poverty alleviation strategy: An economic analysis of cassava production in Dekina LGA, Kogi State. In:  Akande, S. O.; Okuneye, P. A. and Adeyeye, V. A. (eds). Agricultural Development for Poverty Alleviation and Economic Empowerment in Nigeria. Proceeding of the 17th annual conference of Farm Management Association of Nigeria (FAMAN) held at the Sheraton hotel, Abuja, Nigeria, Pp: 176-180.


Authors, year Title of E-book (in italics), Publisher, and date of original publication. [Format] Available: Source. Example: T. Eckes, (2018). The Developmental Social Psychology of Gender, Lawrence Erlbaum, Pp.


Authors, year “Title of Article”, Title of Journal (in italics), Volume (Issue), pages, and month year.  [Format] Available: Database Name (if appropriate), article number (if given), internet address. [Accessed date of access]. Example: A. Altun, (2018). “Understanding hypertext in the context of reading on the web: Language learners’ experience”, Current Issues in Education, 6(12), July 2003. [Online]. [Online]. Available: [Accessed Dec. 2, 2004].


Authors should take notice of the limitations set by the size and layout of the Journal. Large tables should be avoided. All tables must be numbered serially in Arabic numbers. Table headings should be placed (centred) above the table. Place tables as close as possible to where they are mentioned in the main text. All Tables should be referred to in the text as Table 1, Table 2, etc. Tables should be numbered according to their sequence in the text. They should include reference to all Tables. Each Table should have a brief and self-explanatory title. Column headings should be brief, but sufficiently explanatory. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Leave some space between the columns instead. Any explanation essential to the understanding of the Table should be given as a footnote at the bottom of the table.


Graphs and photographs should be as few as possible. Illustration should be numbered according to their sequence in the text. Reference should be made in the text to each illustration. Each illustration should be identified on the reverse side by its number and the name of the author. An indication of the top of the illustration is needed in photographs of profiles, etc., where doubt can arise. Legends should not be on the photographic illustration but should be typed accompanying the illustrations. Photographs are only acceptable if they have good contrast and intensity. Sharp and glossy copies are required.


Figures should be as small and simple as is compatible with clarity. Please, present the figure immediately preceding the where it was first mentioned. The goal is for figures to be comprehensible to readers in other or related disciplines, and to assist their understanding of the paper. Unnecessary figures and parts (panels) of figures should be avoided: data presented in small tables or histograms, for instance, can generally be stated briefly in the text. Avoid unnecessary complexity, coloring and excessive detail. Label all figures as Figure 1, and should be indicated with Arabic numerals. No part of a figure should go beyond the typing area.


Equations should be numbered consecutively. Equation numbers, within parentheses, are to position flush right, e.g., as…(1) against the equation using a right tab stop. Please, cite in the text using, e.g., “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, not “(1)”, and note that the formula is centered using a center tab stop. Be sure that the symbols in your formula have been defined using “where;” (the w should be in small letter) before or immediately following the equation. Notation must be legible, clear, compact, and consistent with standard usage. In general, acronyms should be defined at first use. Level of statistical significance which can be mentioned without further explanation are *P<0.05, **P<0.01 and ***P<0.001.

In chemical formulae, valence of ions should be given as Ca, CO, etc. Isotope numbers should precede the symbols, e.g. 13O.


The SI system should be used for all scientific and laboratory data unless they conflict with generally accepted current practice {e.g. kilogram (kg), milligram (mg), liter (lt), hour (hr), degree centigrade (oc) hectare (ha)} etc.


Authors and editors are by general agreement obliged to accept the rules governing biological nomenclatures laid down in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, and the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.  All biotica (crops, plants, insects, birds, mammals, etc) should be identified by their scientific names when the English term is first used, with the exception of common domestic animals.

All biocides and other organic compounds must be identified by their Genera names when first used in the text.

For chemical nomenclature, the conventions of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and the official recommendations of the IUPAC-IUB combined Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature should be followed.


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